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PAPER TITLE (14pt Times New Roman, Upper case, Bold, center)
Correspondence Author *1, Co-author2 (12pt Times New Roman, center)
*1 Department, Collage, Country (12pt Times New Roman, center)
2 Department, Collage, Country (12pt Times New Roman, center)
*Correspondence Author: email@example.com (12pt Times New Roman, Left)
Abstract: (12pt Times New Roman, Heading Bold, Justified)
The abstract consists of a single, concise paragraph describing the purpose, procedure, and results of your study. Use no more than 200 words. Do not write the abstract until you are nearly finished writing and then draft and redraft until it reads as clearly as possible.
The following will guide the structure of your abstract:
Motivation/Background: Explain the importance of the problem investigated in the paper. Include here a statement of the main research question.
Method: Give a short account of the most important methods used in your investigation.
Results: Present the main results reported in the paper.
Conclusions: Briefly present the conclusions and importance of the results. Concisely summarize the study’s implications. Please do not include any citations in the abstract.
Keywords: (12pt Times New Roman, Justified, Capitalized Each Word)
Write here up to six (6) keywords relevant to the research presented in the manuscript. For example, capital allocation; generalized linear modeling; regression modeling; reserving.
- INTRODUCTION (12pt Times New Roman, All caps, Bold, Justified)
(Should be around 5 pages only)
In the Introduction section, present clearly and briefly the problem investigated, with relevant references.
This section should put the focus of the manuscript into a broader context. As you compose the Introduction, think of readers who are not experts in this field. Include a brief review of the key literature. If there are relevant controversies or disagreements in the field, they should be mentioned so that a non-expert reader can delve into these issues further. It should conclude with a brief statement of the overall aim of the research or experiments and a comment about whether that aim was achieved.
The goal of this section is to combine information about the setting of the action research project and the story behind the project into a smooth narrative that gets the reader engaged in your work’s context; the critical question is also introduced here. This section is usually about three to five pages long. The reader should have a good idea what the paper is about before finishing the first page.
In the introduction, be mindful of the following:
- Context: It is important to communicate to the reader a clear picture of the overall context of your research project. The way you write the beginning of your paper lays the foundation (weak or strong) for the credibility and trustworthiness of your results and conclusions.
- Use storytelling: Instead of telling about your setting, illustrate it for the reader using stories and anecdotes taken from your notes, reflections, and data. Introduce major players in your analysis and results.
- Include active and layered description: Use multiple data sources to illustrate the setting and story behind the research. It must be clear to the reader that you are thoroughly immersed and engaged in your setting, and are therefore qualified to make credible analyses and interpretations. By referring to some data here you signal to the reader prior to the rest of the paper what type of research this is and how data were generally collected.
- Your story: It is also important to communicate to the reader a clear picture of yourself as the researcher and how your own biases and experiences, and assumptions not only influence the study but also provided the fodder for your critical question. This may be woven into your illustration of context by including your own thoughts and memories. If there are key quotes that tell your story in another’s words, consider including the quote in this section. Make it clear how you arrived at your critical question.
- Your critical question: Bring your narrative to a climax in which you lay out your critical question in detail. Explain briefly what your action(s) consisted of. Tell briefly what your conclusions look like (don’t try to keep the reader in suspense).
What is the purpose of the study? Why are you conducting the study? The introduction must state the goals of the research being conducted. It must include a rationale for the study along with a hypothesis. An important part of the introduction is a brief background that is based on a thorough literature search so that the readers know what the study is based on. Give a general idea on what has been done already, and in what ways your study is different.
Theoretical and operational frameworks of the study should be discussed here to fill in the research gaps. It should also be supported by other related research theories and findings.
In summary, an Introduction should have:
- Clear and explicit introduction of the problem being investigated.
- All problems should be accurately and clearly defined.
- Literature review conveys what is known about the topic, and possible research gaps.
- Literature used in review should be appropriate (i.e., from a peer reviewed journal).
- Logical presentation of ideas (i.e., no illogical jumps or omissions).
- Research proposed is discussed in the context of what is already known.
- Study Framework and Significance of the Study shall be included here.
- Hypotheses are stated (if applicable).
- MATERIALS AND METHODS
(Should not exceed 4 pages)
This section should provide enough detail to allow full replication of the study by suitably skilled investigators. Protocols for new methods should be included, but well-established protocols may simply be referenced. We encourage authors to submit, as separate supporting information files, detailed protocols for newer or less well-established methods.
An important aspect of all scientific research is that it be repeatable. This gives validity to the conclusions. The materials and methods section of a manuscript allow other interested researchers to be able to conduct the experience to expand on what was learned and further develop the ideas. It is for this reason that this section of the paper be specific. It must include a step-by-step protocol along with detailed information about all reagents, devices, and subjects used for the study. How the data was constructed, collected, and interpreted should also be outlined in detail, including information on all statistical tests used.
In summary, the Materials and Methods should contain the following:
- Should provide sufficient information to allow other researchers to replicate study, including:
Describe population, gender, race/ethnicity, mean age, etc. (any demographic information that may be relevant to the study) as well as how participants were recruited or used as respondents of the study.
Describe measures or apparatus used; include information about the scale of any measures as well as validity and reliability if available.
- Describe the process of conducting the study (e.g., signing of informed consent, the order of procedures – or questionnaires, if or how participants were compensated for their time, any debriefing procedure, etc.)
- Appropriate statistics applicable to the design of the study; Consult adviser with questions pertaining to the appropriate statistical test to use.
- RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
(Should not exceed 10 pages)
The results section should provide details of all of the experiments that are required to support the conclusions of the paper. The section may be divided into subsections, each with a concise subheading.
It is advised that this section be written in past tense. It is a good idea to rely on charts, graphs, and tables to present the information. This way, the author is not tempted to discuss any conclusions derived from the study. The charts, graphs, and table should be clearly labeled and should include captions that outline the results without drawing any conclusions. A description of statistical tests as it relates to the results should be included.
- CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
(Not more than one page)
Summarize the results in words rather than numbers and elaborate on the extent to which the objectives of the study were met. Do not include information from a literature search. Instead, focus on the primary conclusions of the study. Interpret the results for the audience; do not leave any results unexplained. Scientific writing cannot be left open for interpretation.
Be sure to avoid over-interpreting the results and make general conclusions that cannot be justifiably derived from the parameters of the study. Discuss any implications and limitations of the study as well as to what extent the conclusions are in concert with other researchers. The main results should be presented clearly and briefly, insisting on their significance and degree of novelty.
This section may also include also include discussion on theoretical and methodological implications of findings.
People who contributed to the work but do not fit criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments, along with their contributions. It is advised that authors ensure that anyone named in the acknowledgments agrees to being so named. Funding sources that have supported the work should also be cited.
- APPENDICES (if applicable)
A writer places in the appendices additional information that supports or illustrates points in the paper. Items in the appendices allow the reader to go deeper or gain a clearer view of what is being said in the main text.
Appendices are important but they are not a “dumping ground.” For example, not all data goes in the appendices; however, a log of data sets may be appropriate. Not all student work would be placed in the appendices, but a sample that clarifies an assignment would be appropriate. List each appendix as “APPENDIX A,” “APPENDIX B,” etc.
Possible inclusions in the appendices include:
- a log of data sets or specific items from a data set;
- surveys, questionnaires, and interview questions;
- letters home (including how you gained permissions);
- lesson plans;
All references used for the study should be cited in accordance with guidelines set by the journal in which the author wishes to be published, citation methods required in your program, to ensure that references are done correctly. Plagiarism is not only legally and ethically wrong; it cheapens the quality of your journey.
Unless there are three authors or more give all authors' names; do not use “et al.” Papers that have not been published, even if they have been submitted for publication, should be cited as “unpublished.” Papers that have been accepted for publication should be cited as “in press.” Capitalize the first letter of each word in a paper title, except for proper nouns and element symbols.
 Gowreesh, S., Sreenivasalu Reddy, N. and Yogananda Murthy, NV. Convective Heat Transfer Analysis of a Aero Gas Turbine Blade Using Ansys, International Journal of Mechanics and Solids. 4, 2009, 39-46.
 B. Deepanraj, P. Lawrence, G. Sankaranarayanan, Theoretical analysis of gas turbine blade by Finite element method, Scientific World, Vol. 9, No. 9, July 2011, 29-33.
 Gurrappa, I. V. S. Yashwanth, A. K. Gogia, The Behaviour of Superalloys in Marine Gas Turbine Engine Conditions, Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, 1, 2011, 144-149.
 Brooks CR. Heat treatment, structure and properties of nonferrous alloys. New York: ASM; 1984, 139–228.
 Huda Z. Development of heat-treatment process for a P/M superalloy for turbine blades. Mater 28(5), Des 2007; 1664–7.
 Boyce MP., The gas turbine handbook. 2nd ed. Houston, Texas: Gulf Professional Publishing; 2002, 411.
Type of Reference
Akagami R, Napolitano M, Sekhar LN. Patient evaluated outcome after surgery for basal meningiomas. Neurosurgery. 2002;50:941-949.
Journal- article “in press”
Author(s). Article Title, Journal Name. In press
(with volume and page info)
Author(s). Article Title, Journal Name. Year; vol(issue No.):Inclusive pages. URL. Accessed [date].
(with volume and page info)
Author(s). Article Title, Journal Name. Year. Doi:.
Journal- online ahead of print
Author(s). Article Title [published online ahead of print Month Day year]. Journal name. Year; vol(issue No.):Inclusive pages. URL. Accessed [date].
Book- single author
Benzel EC. Biomechanical of Spine Stabilization: Principles and Clinical practice. New York: McGraw- Hill, Inc.; 1995
Fischberg GM, Mohammadi A, Suzuki S, Fisher M. Diagnosis and management of moyamoya disease. In: Cohen SN, ed. Management of Ischemic Stroke. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2000;291-310
Book- with editors
Sanna M, Saleh E, Kharis T, et al, eds. Atlas of Microsurgery of the Lateral Skull Base. Stuttgart, Germany: Georg Thieme- Verlag; 2008
Author(s). Book Title. Edition number (if it is the second edition or above). City, State (or country) of publisher: Publisher’s name; copyright year. URL. Accessed [date].
Author (or, if no author is available, the name of the organization responsible for the site). Title (or, if no title is available, the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of the Web site URL. Accessed [date].
NOTE: The Below following template can be used if the above-mentioned template is not applicable for your research. Format for paper title, author, keywords and abstract remains the same.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH OUTPUTS
NOTE: The following template can be used if the above-mentioned template is not applicable for your research. Format for paper title, author, keywords and abstract remains the same.
INTRODUCTION (not more than 5 pages)
- Sets the scene of the research and puts it into context (what the research is all about)
- Comprehensive discussion of what is being researched
- Account of previous researches
- Account how literature were searched or discovered
- Critical commentary of studies reviewed
- Discussion of theories that support the research problem
- Significance of the research
METHODOLOGY (not more than 4 pages)
- How the research subjects or samples were selected should be discussed
- How interviews, and other qualitative data collection methods (how such were carried out for example) should be mentioned
- How the researchers handled data and interpreted them should be mentioned and discussed thoroughly anchored from the theoretical and operational frameworks/models of the study
FINDINGS (not more than 5 pages)
- Present what has been discovered “as is,” without the researcher’s opinions or critique
DISCUSSIONS (not more than 10 pages)
- Should stick to a discussion of the findings. The researcher now gives opinions or critiques to the findings or discoveries
- Never stray discussions beyond data gathered
CONCLUSIONS (not more than 2 pages)
- Summarize findings and suggest applications of these findings
APPENDICES (if applicable)
REFERENCES (Same as above)
GUIDELINES FOR TABLES AND FIGURES
- Do not restate all the information from tables/figures in the text of the paper -Tables/figures should not be used to highlight what has already been said in the paper
- Tables or graphs?
– Use tables to present detailed, important data
– Use graphs to show trends in data
- A common and simple table format is used in most of the tables on these pages. It includes a thin straight border under the title and heading cells and under the main body of data. There is usually no need for vertical borders. Often, the title is in bold. Putting the headings in bold is advised only if they are very short headings, and not if it is inconsistent with the format for other tables in the report.
- Refer to all the tables/figures in the text
– Point out the relevant part(s) of a table/figure when referring to it
– Refer to tables/figures with their numbers (e.g., Table 1); do not refer to their location (like “in the table below”)
- Use tables to present data that is detailed and that is important
- Tables are “expensive” in terms of space requirements and formatting demands
- Each table needs a concise title of no more than one sentence, placed above the table with the table number. The legend and footnotes should be placed below the table. Footnotes may be used to explain abbreviations.
- Consider using text instead of tables if data is:
– Not detailed: One or two sentences can be used to describe the data
– Not important: The entire data does not need to be presented; instead, a summary can be given in text
- Be cell-based (e.g., created in Word with Tables tool (preferred) or in Excel).
- Be editable (i.e., not a graphic object).
- Have heading/subheading levels in separate columns.
- Be no larger than one printed page (7 in x 9 in). Larger tables can be published as online supporting information. Note: some wide tables may be printed sideways in the PDF.
- Table number and title appear above the table.
Tables must not:
- Use returns or tabs within a cell.
- Have color or shading.
- Use lines, rules, or borders.
- Contain spaces within cells to align text.
- Have vertically merged cells; horizontally merged cells are fine.
- Have inserted text boxes or pictures.
- Have tables within tables.
- Include empty columns, rows, or cells to create spacing.
- Include hyperlinked text.
Sample of a “Table”
- Clarity: Make sure that all the parts of the figure are clear and legible at the figure size you have used.
- Abbreviation of the word "Figure":
– When referring to a Figure in the text, the word "Figure" is abbreviated as "Fig.", while "Table" is not abbreviated. Both words are spelled out completely in descriptive legends.
- Big or little? For course-related papers, a good rule of thumb is to size your figures to fill about one-half of a page. Readers should not have to reach for a magnifying glass to make out the details. Compound figures may require a full page.
- Color or no color? Most often black and white is preferred. The rationale is that if you need to photocopy or fax your paper, any information conveyed by colors will be lost to the reader. However, for a poster presentation or a talk with projected images, color can be helpful in distinguishing different data sets. Every aspect of your Figure should convey information; never use color simply because it is pretty.
- Figure number and title appear below the figure.
– Label the important parts of schematic diagrams
– Insert scale in images and maps
GENERAL TIPS ON WRITING COMPLETED RESEARCH OUTPUTS
- Write in third person – minimize using a first person perspective (e.g., “we conducted this study…” State instead: “this study was conducted…”).
- Do not include any personal statements or anecdotes (e.g., “I was interested in studying eating disorders because my sister was diagnosed with…” such statements do not belong in a research paper).
- In general, use past tense (e.g., “the results indicated” rather than “the results indicate”).
- Do not use contractions (e.g., “it doesn’t follow”, instead, use “it does not follow”)
- Be wary of biased language and keep up to date with appropriate terms, especially if you are writing a paper that involves gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, etc.
- Be sure to cite your sources. Try to paraphrase as much as possible (as opposed to quoting). There are a couple of ways to do this:
- State a fact or make a claim in the text; then cite your source in parentheses within the same sentence: “It has been demonstrated that immediate recall is extremely limited for 5-year-old children (Jones, 1998).” OR “Previous research has shown that response to an auditory stimulus is much faster than response to a visual stimulus (Smith & Jones, 2003).”
b. You can also use the source as the subject of your sentence: “In a related study, Jones (2005) found that…” OR “In a similar study, Jones and